2D Representation of Inviscid Air Flow over a Sphere

Abstract This lab is a 2D representation of inviscid air flow over a sphere using the analogy of constant voltage lines on conductive paper with stream lines and potential lines. Lines were traced at several voltages measured along the paper. These lines, depending on how the paper was oriented in relationship to the current flow, … Read More»

Absorption Spectroscopy of Conjugated Dyes and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract Conjugated polymethine dyes and the cadmium selenide nanoparticles that were animate to their last incite energy rank were indagate by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The dyes were comparison with varying polymethine chains (p = 7, 9, and 11) with highest peak wavelength at 590 nm, 705 nm, and 820 nm. The wavelength was … Read More»

Adaptive Optics Overview

Adaptive Optics Adaptive optics is a technological development used for optical system performance improvement. It works by reducing the effect of wavefront distortions. Light from a distant celestial object gets distorted as it passes through earth’s atmosphere, thus a telescope located on earth’s surface cannot form accurate images. It would take a telescope placed above Earth’s surface, … Read More»

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

Beyza GÖLGE   In todays, demand for electric energy has increased with growing world’s population. Modern society has depended on fossil fuels for energy. However, because of the fact that fossil resources are limited and cannot last a long time, human beings have been in quest for finding new alternative energy sources. Since 1939, they … Read More»

Advantages of Metamaterials

Juan Castellanos   The future is here and you wouldn’t believe how far research has come. Through countless experiments and hard work scientists have expanded the limits on what we thought to be impossible via advances in metamaterials. These so called “metamaterials” are artificially constructed improvements over naturally occurring materials commonly used in inventions. These … Read More»

How Do Aeroplanes Fly?

Leo Wang Introduction: Aeroplanes have become an increasingly popular method of transportation for human beings to travel all over the world. In this case, some people may consider why the aeroplanes drive faster or how these huge machines fly successfully in the air. This research is mainly to figure out this amazing ability for a … Read More»

Aluminium Heat Capacities

Aim The aim of the experiment was to determine the specific heat capacities, with uncertainties, of two different materials; for the purposes of this experiment, it was chosen to be aluminium Introduction Specific heat capacity is defined as the quantity of heat energy, which will raise the temperature of unit mass (1kg) of a substance … Read More»

Amplitude Equations Using Pendulums

This report will compare the amplitude formulas thus investigating why they are different. [ar1]The purpose of this report is to find why there is a difference by comparing the two formulas, it will also test why when the amplitude is increased the time-period will consequentially increase. The experiments conducted for this report will use simple methods … Read More»

Analysis of the Doppler Effect

Assignment 3: topics and themes in physics- oscillations and waves Doppler radar A Doppler radar is specialized radar that uses the Doppler Effect to produce data about an objects velocity at a given distance. Doppler radar works by bouncing microwave signals at the desired target and then listening to its reflection, then the returning frequency … Read More»

Analysis of Ferrous Ferrite (Fe3O4)

1.1 INTRODUCTION: The naturally occurring ferrite is the ferrous ferrite (Fe3O4) as “Load stone”. In early days it was called as ferromagnetic material. L.Neel, tells us that these materials are “ferromagnetic” material due to uncompensated anti parallel spin arrangement. Due to interesting intrinsic properties magnetic materials are classified into Ferromagnetic materials, Ferrites. In last decades … Read More»

Analysis of Optical Imaging Technologies

PAI is a relatively new imaging modality which displays optical absorption contrast with a high resolution at depths of up to a few centimetres. Tissue is illuminated using short laser pulses and ultrasound waves are generated within the tissue upon optical absorption. An image is formed of the optical absorption contrast based on the arrival … Read More»

Analysis of Safeguarding Measures

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF STUDY Machines are very dangerous to workers and are commonplace in many industries. The safety, health and welfare of workers are of utmost importance, especially where machine and moving parts of machines are involved. The employers have a legal duty to take reasonable care of the safety of the workers … Read More»

Analysis of S-d Exchange Interactions in Dilute Cu-mn Alloys

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Phenomenological analysis of the s-d exchange interactions in dilute Cu-Mn alloys at helium temperatures AL-Jalali, M. A. Abstract: The S-d exchange interactions in dilute Cu-Mn alloys was studied on concentration ( C ) varying between 10.5 and 2081.8 ppm of Mn in Cu within the ( 0.03K – 4.2K ) temperature range. Using electrical resistivity … Read More»

Analysis of SIF Intrinsic Dynamics

Abstract. It was recently found that spectral solar incident flux (SIF) as a function of the ultraviolet wavelengths exhibit 1/ftype power-law correlations. In this study, an attempt was made to explore the SIF intrinsic dynamics versus a wider range of wavelengths, from 115.5nm to 629.5nm. It seemed that the intermittency of SIF data set was very … Read More»

An Experiment Determining Lift from Pressure Distributions

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract The experiment described in this report used a pressure distribution over a NACA 0012 airfoil to determine the lift and moment coefficient about the quarter-chord on that airfoil. Lift is one of the most important and governing forces acting on a body moving in a fluid. The calculation of lift and drag is at … Read More»

An x-ray machine

How does an X-ray machine work? An X-ray machine is essentially a camera instead of visible light, however, it uses X-rays to expose the film. X-rays are like light in that they are electromagnetic waves, but they are more energetic so they can penetrate many materials to varying degrees. When the X-rays hit the film, … Read More»

Application of Electricity to Transistors

Intro: A transistor is an electronic device that has three terminals where a small current at one terminal is used to control currents at the other terminals. Before transistors were invented by Bardeen and Brattain in 1947, thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) were the devices that were able to amplify current signals within a circuit. The … Read More»

Applications of Engineering Materials in Aerospace

In this project I will discuss in details the applications of engineering materials in Engineering and its many application in the Aerospace and Formula 1. Materials are key in engineering because the correct materials are needed to meet the needed of the environment that they are meant for use in. In aerospace the materials that … Read More»

Applications of Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Applications of Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to bulk materials Jingru Chi ABSTRACT X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is a powerful, relevant and non-destructive method for studying atoms, molecules and surfaces [1]. However, investigations are limited to atoms, molecules and surfaces since low energy electrons limit the depth resolution, resulting in three-dimensional bulk state cannot be detected. Hard … Read More»

Applications of Ultrasound in Medicine

AB Assessment – Using Waves Introduction Ultrasound is a sound wave with an oscillating pressure wave with frequencies ranging from 20 kHz until approximately 200 MHz. These frequencies are not audible to humans. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure the distance between them. Ultrasound has been more frequently used in medical imaging … Read More»

Application of Wave Technology in Military Aspect

“Hide and Seek” in the World of Wave Student name: Choi Ho Lam Thank you for giving this valuable chance for me to investigate on this topic. As this topic involves military technology, it gives a deeper understanding of wave principle and usage in daily life. However, in normal settings, such kind of topic is not … Read More»

Aqueous Magnetic Fluids Instabilities in a Hele-Shaw Cell

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   M. RÄ‚CUCIU “Lucian Blaga” University, Faculty of Science, Dr.Ratiu Street, No.5-7, Sibiu, 550024, Romania In this study, it was investigated the interface patterns of two immiscible, viscous fluids into the geometry of a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell, considering that one of the fluids is an aqueous magnetic fluid. In general, the total energy of a … Read More»

Argon Cluster and Graphene Collision Simulation Experiment

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Formation of Nanopore in a Suspended Graphene Sheet with Argon Cluster Bombardment: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation study Abstract: Formation of a nanopore in a suspended graphene sheet using an argon gas beam was simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) method. The Lennard-Jones (LJ) two-body potential and Tersoff–Brenner empirical potential energy function are applied in … Read More»

Artificially Constructed Spacetime with Closed Timelike Curves

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Artificially constructed spacetime with closed timelike curves to test the plausibility of Godel’s universe OBJECTIVES The objectives of this research are to discover if in this set up we can prove blabla. The aim is to open up a door that leads to a more serious  interest and complex research on this topic. … Read More»

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

Atomic force microscope (AFM) was invented by Gerd Binnig, Calvin F. Quate and Christopher Herber in 1986 [83]. AFM relies on interactive force to generate an image. Interactive force occurs between a tip and sample surface using the probe which is a micro-fabricated elastic cantilever with a sharp tip on the end. Get Help With … Read More»

Atomic Short Range Order (SRO) in Ni20Pd80 Alloy

An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Atomic Short Range Order (SRO) in Ni20Pd80 Alloy ——————————————————————   Abstract The behavior of atomic short range order (SRO) has been investigated in a polycrystalline alloy of Ni20Pd80 at different temperatures by using diffuse X-ray scattering intensities. The ordering energies and the atomic SRO-parameters (α1) have been calculated by using … Read More»

History of Atomic Theory

The atomic theory is developed since 2000 years ago the Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that there was a limit to how small one could be divide matter, this smallest matter indivisible particle was called “atom”. However this atomic theory of Democritus was criticized by Aristotle who proposed a model based on four basic “elements” of … Read More»

Attack Ads in US Presidential Elections

Discuss to what extent attack ads are effective within presidential election campaigns in the U.S, with a focus on the 2012 election In the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Attack ads were a major part of the 2012 presidential election campaign in the U.S. In fact, the Washington Post reports that of the $404 million that … Read More»

Beam Behaviour and Magnetic Field of K500 Scc

Vinay Singh#, A Dutta, A Agarwal, C Das, B Naik, Z A Naser, S Paul, U Bhunia, J Pradhan, J Debnath Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 Abstract The extraction of the beam from the K500 Superconducting Cyclotron in Kolkata is posing a great challenge. After getting the internal beam, lots of … Read More»

Beer-Lambert’s Law Experiment

Design Project on Beer- Lambert’s Law. Saswati Rakshit Aim: To learn and understand the basics and mathematical calculations of the following problem and write programs accordingly. Problem 1: Suppose an outdoor multispectral image is captured by a camera with a path length of 1-3 microns. A part of the intensity is attenuated by the absorption of small … Read More»

Calculating Free Fall Acceleration

Introduction A research by Heckert (2010) shows in 1600s, the famous physicist Galileo . Galilei found the swinging motion of a large chandelier in the Pisa cathedral. He began to seriously analyse the chandelier, and recorded the time the light took to swing. In the 16th century, there was no stopwatch so that Galileo timed … Read More»

Calculations of Rare Earth (Y, La and Ce) Diffusivities

First-principles calculations of rare earth (Y, La and Ce) diffusivities in bcc Fe Xueyun Gaoa,b,[*], Huiping Rena, Chunlong Lia,c, Haiyan Wanga, Yunping Jia, Huijie Tan a ABSTRACT: The impurity diffusivities of rare earth elements, Y, La and Ce, in bcc Fe have been investigated by the first-principles calculations within nine-frequency model. The microscopic parameters in the pre-factor and … Read More»

Calculations of the Spin Structure of Trimer Cr3

Calculation of Magnetic Properties by Generalized Spin Hamiltonian and Generation of Global Entanglement: Cr Trimer in molecule and on surface Oleg V. Stepanyuk2, Oleg V. Farberovich1 1 Raymond and Bekerly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel 2 Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle, Germany Here we present the results of the first-principles calculations of the spin structure of trimer Cr3 with … Read More»

Effect of Temperature on the Resistivity of a Semiconductor

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Introduction A thermistor is a resistance thermometer, or a resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature. The term is a combination of “thermal” and “resistor”. It is made of metallic oxides, pressed into a bead, disk, or cylindrical shape and then compressed with an impermeable material such as epoxy or glass. This means … Read More»

Car Accidents: Causes, Statistics and Prevention

Introduction Cars today play a vital role in our lives. They bring ease and satisfaction to our lives, because these vehicles help us transport from one place to another without exerting so much effort on it. Wherever you desire to go cars are the fast and easiest solution for your problems. Get Help With Your … Read More»

Transducers used in the Cardiac Ultrasound Machine.

Transducers used in the Cardiac Ultrasound Machine. Abstract: Ultrasound imaging depends on the ability of piezoelectric crystals to generate sound when excited with alternating current and the reverse effect of charge accumulation or current flow when such crystals are subjected to pressure from sound waves. The first known ultrasound imaging machine was designed by K. … Read More»

Cardiovascular System in Parabolic Flight and Spaceflights

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Human Spaceflight: Alterations of the cardiovascular system during parabolic flights and spaceflights The purpose of this research is to identify the changes occurring during parabolic flights and spaceflights, where there’s weightlessness. The importance of the cardiovascular system in space, is recognised as well as some of its fundamentals based on past researches. In … Read More»

Causes and Effects of Gravity

Ahmed Emad Hassab Elnabi Gravitational Force “’You may hate gravity, but gravity doesn’t care.’ Clayton Christensen”. This Harvard teacher was directing this quotation to students like me because it is a force that cannot be viewed. Gravity is a field force exerted by an object to attract another object towards its center. In a simplified … Read More»

Centre of Mass Impact on Roll of Dice

Harrison Back   In physics, the centre of mass is defined as “The unique part in an object or system which can be used to describe the system’s response to external forces and torques” (Center of Mass, Hyperphysics.com). It references the overall average mass of an object and assigns that average to a point on … Read More»

Changing Output Voltage of DC – DC Converters

Ben Harper The Purpose of this investigation is to look at the effects of changing various components in a 3 volt to 9 volt DC – DC converter will have on the output voltage. The results collected will be compared to theoretical values in order to find out whether or not they match and if … Read More»

Chaotic Curiosity or Curios Chaos

Abhishek Tiwari The word science comes from “scientia”, Latin word for knowledge. Webster’s dictionary defines science as “the knowledge covering the general truths of the operations of general laws, especially as obtained and tested through the scientific method and concerned with the physical world”. In a layman’s interpretation science is a systematic way to obtain … Read More»

Characterising the Atmosphere of Proxima B

  1.Intro As of April 2016, 582 extrasolar planets have been discovered (NASA) using Doppler spectroscopy, a method for detecting extrasolar planets by deducing their radial velocity from the Doppler shifts in the spectrum of the planets parent star. Using this method, Anglada-Escude et al (2016) recent observations have revealed a 1.3 Earth mass planet … Read More»

CMS Detector at the LHC: Calorimetry (EM, Had, Forward)

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   CMS structure: Solenoid: Most particles are stopped by the detector except for few, such as muons, neutrino. Main difference between ATLAS and CMS is that CMS has solenoid on the outer layer, so it bends the trajectory of the muons again in an opposite direction (opposite pointing magnetic field). Depending on how much … Read More»

Coincidence Counting With NAI Scintillation Detectors

ABSTRACT Coincidence counting is a technique employed in nuclear medicine for PET imaging. This technique utilizes a positron emitting radionuclide that is injected into patients to track biochemical and physiological processes. The positron annihilates with an electron and emit two 0.511MeV gamma rays which are detected simultaneously by two scintillation detectors. In the experiment, two … Read More»

Comparison of Different Turbulent Models for Backward -facing Step Flow

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Comparison of Different Turbulent Models for Backward -facing Step Flow Abstract A comparison of different turbulence model for flow over a backward facing Step is presented. A Reynolds number of 36,00 and an averaged velocity of 41.7 m/s was considered. The result was compared with data by Driver and Seegmiller.  The purpose of … Read More»

Comparison of Specific Heat Capacity of Different Metals

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Samerah Mansha   Aim The aim of this investigation was to measure the specific heat capacity (SHC) of various different metals such as aluminum, iron and brass of different volumes to find out if they all have the same SHC or different. Additionally, insulation was used to measure how efficient insulation was against … Read More»

Concepts of Atomic Structure and Bonding

Introduction The purpose of this essay is to discuss Atomic Structure and Bonding. The essay will explain the concepts of “mass number” and “relative atomic mass”, nucleon numbers, demonstrating how to deduce the electronic structure, explaining what ions are, and explaining what ionic bonds are. The research was conducted independently via online articles in order … Read More»

Concepts of Time Travel: Wormholes, Gravity and Blackholes

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Any sort of time travel to the past through wormholes or any viable strategy is presumably incomprehensible, generally mysteries might happen. So unfortunately, it seems that time travel to the past will never happen; a bafflement for dinosaur seekers and an easing for antiquarians. How to travel in future? Through wormholes: We should … Read More»

Conditions for Equilibrium Experiment

Laboratory Report Tricia Desierto, Luis Diaz, Karhen Estella, Gabrielle Beatrix Francisco Department of Biological Science College of Science, University of Santo TomasEspaña, Manila, Philippines Abstract The object is said to be in a state of equilibrium, when the forces acting upon an object are balanced. There were four activities done in the experiment. In the … Read More»

Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Microstructures and Magnetic Anisotropy Properties of Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Abstract This study investigated the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy and the trend of magnetic field induced strain in Co-Ni-Al and Co-Ni-Al-Fe ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. At room temperature, a trunk-type γ phase precipitates in the matrix phase and the grain boundaries in each … Read More»

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