Achilles Tendinopathy Case Study

Case Study: Subjective and Physical Assessment Case Study A sports technician has presented with 2 dissimilar pains in their right ankle, 3-weeks ago after increasing training from inconsistent cross-fit and swimming sessions to their current routine; two CrossFit sessions, two 60-minute boxing sessions and three 20-minute jogs. Pain 1 is a localised, sharp pain with … Read More»

Anatomy and Physiology Case Study

Case #1: A 60 year old man with long-standing type II diabetes that has been untreated with insulin is admitted to the hospital after reporting noticeably bloody urine. Bilaterally, he has no feeling in the bottoms of his feet and decreased sensitivity mid-shin, while sensation at the knees is normal. Upon examination the clinician notices that … Read More»

Airborne infectious disease

Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease which is caused by bacteria belonging to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex1. There are approximately one third of the world’s population are infected with tuberculosis where nine millions of new cases reported annually2. Although tuberculosis is essentially curable and preventable, it continues to cause millions of deaths every year2. When … Read More»

Individual Psychology Theory of Adler

ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY Introduction Biography Alfred Adler was born in February 7, 1870 in the suburbs of Vienna. He was the third child and second son of a Jewish grain merchant. During his childhood, Alfred made developed rickets which limited from walking. When he was five years he nearly died from pneumonia. During … Read More»

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Physiology & Treatment

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Physiological traits Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive and deadly disease. Many with ALS experience grief and many families of those affected endure the same. At present medical science has demonstrated great potential in finding a workable cure or … Read More»

Analysis of the Benefits of Barefoot Running

To what extent does barefoot running limit the amount of running injuries as well as assist in rehabilitation? For thousands of years, running barefoot has been the natural way to run for humans. As time went on and technological advancements arose, shoes have taken over in developed countries whereas many developing countries continue to follow … Read More»

Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body

Anatomy and Physiology Part A Identify the parts of the digestive system on the diagram overleaf?(Refer to Brief) Explain the function of each part of the digestive system identified in the diagram above? Outline the composition of Proteins, Fats and Carbohydrates, and explain how each of them are digested and absorbed by the body? Part … Read More»

Angina pectoris

1.0 Summary Angina pectoris is the chest discomfort which occurs when the heart muscle could not received sufficient oxygenated blood. It is due to atherosclerosis which is the buildup of the plaque at the coronary arteries that reduce the flow of blood to the heart. Also, angina can leads a patient to heart disease such … Read More»

Annotated Bibliography: Effect of Exercise on Motor Skills and Cognition of Pre-Adolescents

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Annotated Bibliography (Updated/Edited) PICO: In pre-adolescent children, how does exercise affect the development of motor skills and cognitive function compared to being sedentary? Introduction: Pre-adolescence is a crucial time for growth and development. Throughout childhood, motor, cognitive, and social skills are continuously developing. Advancements in these areas occur with play, socializing, exercise, … Read More»

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: Causes, Prevention and Gender Differences

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Anterior cruciate ligament, ACL, tears are two to four times higher in female athletes than in males.1 That is a significant difference. One might find themselves asking why this is so much higher. To that person, my advice would be to read this riveting research paper and find out. This paper will … Read More»

Article Review: Effectiveness of Acupuncture for Lower Back Pain

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Three Article title and source being reviewed: Lee, J., Choi, T., Lee, S., Shin, C., Lee, H. Acupuncture for acute low back pain: a systematic review (2013) Clinical Journal of Pain. Feb;29(2):172-85. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31824909f9. Hopton, A., Thomas, K., MacPherson, H. (2013) The Acceptability of Acupuncture for Low Back Pain: A Qualitative Study … Read More»

Nerve Conduction Physiology

BASIC PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE CONDUCTION The neurons form the building blocks of the nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) contains about 100 billion neurons. It also contains 10–50 times this number of glial cells. Neurons Neurons in the mammalian central nervous system come in many different shapes and sizes. Most of them have the … Read More»

Biomechanics of the Hip Joint and Causes of Dislocation

PART 1: The biomechanics of the hip joint is quite complex due to the pelvic motion, alongside the range of movements it produces. In science, biomechanics is the study of forces acting on a living body. Due to its anatomical figure and secure attachments of muscles and ligaments, the hip is quite mobile. The orientation … Read More»

Body Building and Steroids Effect on the Body

What do all these names have in common? Arnold Schwarzenegger, Ronnie Coleman, Jay Cutler, Flex Wheeler and Rich Piana, yet many may say that it’s the fact that they all looked superhumans being 10x the size of a normal human or that they were all regarded as the top bodybuilders of all time at some … Read More»

Body Shape and Gender

Body Shape and Gender differences in ratings. Introduction Body image is the way people perceive themselves and equally important, the way they think others perceive them. Body image is constantly changing, and is always being modified by biological growth, trauma, or decline. It is also significantly influenced and moulded by life circumstances which bring about … Read More»

Brain Structures and Functions

Abstract The reason for this paper is to examine the main structures as well as functions of the brain, in addition to the ways that it affects how humans learn. When discussing the brain, it is critical to comprehend the principal functions of its elements, the way in which the process takes place within the … Read More»

Calculating Blood Components of Cholesterol Research Design

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Good health is absolutely important to a human being and to remain healthy people need to check their blood level parameters. Cholesterol is a very important constituent of over100 constituents in human blood. It is important to develop an instrument wherein blood parameters can be calculated which will be non-invasive, user … Read More»

Cardiac Anatomy and Function

The anatomy of the human heart is the same as a lamb’s heart. A heart is a cardiac muscle that works by relaxing and contracting to pump blood around the body by double circulation, where both sides of the heart work to pump deoxygenated and oxygenated blood to the tissues and lungs at the same … Read More»

Causes and Treatments for Achilles Tendon Injury

Background and Significance: Tendons serve to connect bones with muscle or muscle with muscle, and they are very important because they allow us to perform many functions and without them we would lose almost all of our motor capabilities. In this proposal, one specific tendon is targeted, the Achilles tendon. Tendons has can either be … Read More»

Cell Communication: Receptors and Ligands

Cell Communication: Receptors and Ligands Abstract The connection between ligand binding to eliciting physiological responses is a fundamental mechanism that is a major characteristic of organisms. In this lab, we observed Daphnia Magna’s heart rateunder the influence of various type of drugs, and were able to measure the effects of ligand binding through evaluating their … Read More»

Changes to Bone Density Throughout the Lifespan

Bone age is defines as maturity of children’s bone. It is the average age at which the child bones matures, after the birth in the long bones only metaphyses is there (eg: radius and ulna, Humerus, tibia, femur, fibula, phalanges). In long bones initially there is elongation of epiphysis. As the age progress the calcification … Read More»

Classification of the human senses

Abstract All known human senses are of extreme importance and relevance during employee selection. In this paper, a brief depiction of each sense is presented; the importance, relevance and influence of the sense of sight and hearing in employee recruitment is addressed, specifically in correlation to the screening of cabin crew for a major international … Read More»

Components of Different Bodily Systems

Skeletal System The skeletal system is made up of 206 bones and related cartilage, tendons, ligaments and joints. The bones form a rigid framework that gives the body shape and form, and protect the vital internal organs. The skeleton features two parts: the axial skeleton, aligned along the front of the body and the appendicular … Read More»

Causes and Consequences of Increased Intracranial Pressure

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE What is the Intracranial Pressure? Intracranial Pressure (ICP) is the hydrostatic pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space [4]. Cerebrospinal fluid is a watery fluid circulating in the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. This fluid is synthesized by the choroid … Read More»

Critical Power and The Power-Duration Relationship

Introduction The power output of an athlete and the duration they can maintain the effort for has a hyperbolic relationship (Burnley and Jones, 2018; Poole et al., 2016). The asymptote of this hyperbola is critical power (CP) whilst the curvature constant is W’. Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your … Read More»

Definitions in Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is a science for the study of different parts of living organisms, animal or plant types either by sectioning or other methods; it studies the size, structure and the relating elements, structuring a body, a plant, etc. We distinguish general anatomy, which also takes into account the analysis of physiology. Get Help With Your … Read More»

Detection of Aseptic Loosening in Total Knee Replacements

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Detection of aseptic loosening in total knee replacements: a systematic review and meta-analysis Introduction Total knee replacements are an effective surgery for osteoarthritis[1]. Last year, over 55,000 operations were performed in Australia[2]. Aseptic loosening is the most common reason for revision of primary total knee replacements in Australia and remains the … Read More»

De van Mesdag kliniek

Beschrijving van de instelling[1] De van Mesdag kliniek is een zelfstandig forensisch psychiatrisch centrum, oftewel, een TBS-kliniek. Sinds twee jaar valt deze niet meer onder justitie. Echter, heeft de behandeling binnen deze kliniek hetzelfde doel als behandelingen binnen justitiële TBS-inrichtingen. Behandeling in een TBS kliniek is gericht op het afnemen van delictgevaarlijk gedrag, inzicht krijgen … Read More»

Development and Structure of the Human Heart

Introduction The Human heart is the organ that supplies blood flow throughout the entire Human body. Within the heart are four cavities: two ventricles and two atria. These cavities perform numerous functions individually that work in tandem with each other. First, the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs. Once this is done, the … Read More»

Development Changes of Renal Tubules

Development changes of Renal Tubules from Neonates to Adults for its function Introduction Term infant means a newborn child within 28 days after birth. Nephrone is the functional and structural unit of kidney. Each nephron is made up of narrow tube that specializes in (” renal tubule ” ) secretion and reabsorption pre-filter unit ( … Read More»

Differences Between Pediatric and Adult Patients

Sabrija Cerimovic Introduction The primary focus of this essay will be based upon the unique anatomical and physiological differences between a pediatric patient and an adult one, and how these differences may affect the treatment and/or presentation of a child in a pre-hospital environment. Furthermore, this essay will include and explore how these differences can … Read More»

Difficulty of Weight Losss After Bariatric Surgery

Why Weight Loss is still difficult after bariatric surgery Obesity has quickly become one of the biggest topics in healthcare. It can lead to diabetes, heart disease, joint problems, and sleep apnea, just to name a few. Most people know the risks of being obese, but some still find limited success with diet and exercise. … Read More»

Direct-Instruction Tutoring for Academic Performance

Using Direct-Instruction Tutoring to Improve Academic Performance in Out-Of-Home Care Children Social Policy Proposal Differences in academic achievement is a concept greatly studied in social psychology. There exists a cornucopia of studies investigating issues surrounding the concept with relation to gender, generational, ethnic and class differences (Gil & Carvalho, 2016, Duong, Badaly, Liu, Schwartz, Mccarty, … Read More»

Do People Who Exercise Regularly Have a Greater Lung Capacity?

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Question: Do people who exercise regularly have a greater lung capacity? Problem: Unhealthy lifestyle habits of not completing sufficient amounts of exercise daily can inevitably lead to large scale ramifications upon the lungs functions in a decrease production of air. Aim: To determine whether those who exercise have a greater lung … Read More»

Dynamics of Bone Loss in Cases with Acute or Chronic Apical Abscess

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Dynamics of Bone Loss in Cases with Acute or Chronic Apical Abscess   Introduction: Acute and chronic apical abscesses are two dramatic ways that periradicular tissues may react to pulpal infection and necrosis. Although both of these clinical states are the response to pulpal infection, their clinical manifestations are significantly different. … Read More»

Effect of Fat: Assessment of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract Objectives: Recent studies have indicated that excessive fat may confound assessment of diffusion in organs with high fat content, such as the liver and breast. However, the extent of this effect in the kidney, which is not considered a major fat deposition site, remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that … Read More»

Effect of Glucocorticoids on Serum Level of Omentin-1

Effect of glucocorticoids on serum level of omentin-1 and the possible link with insulin resistance in rats Khaled Abdelfattah Abdelhamid Abulfadle ABSTRACT Background: Omentin-1 is an adipokine that decreases insulin resistance and its level is affected by body weight and serum adiponectin level changes, while, glucocorticoids are steroid hormones, secreted by adrenal cortex, affected insulin resistance, … Read More»

Effectiveness of Pre-Workout on Bench Press and Deadlift Repetitions to Failure

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   The Acute Effectiveness of Pre-Workout Supplements upon repetition to failure (lower and upper body) Repetitions to failure at 75% 1RM (maximum 15 reps) bench press and deadlift performance. Introduction   The consumption pre-workout ergogenic are saturated in the sporting world; it has been on the increase in terms of popularity and … Read More»

Effectiveness of Reduced Carbohydrate Intake

Introduction/Background The ketogenic diet proposes a reduction of carbohydrate intake, replaced with high fat. Studies convey that low carbohydrate diets promote a higher degree of short term weight loss than conventional low fat diets (Manninen, 2004). Moreover, reductions in fasting blood lipids and insulin concentrations are greater in low carbohydrate diets (Manninen, 2004). Fundamentally, the … Read More»

Effect of Added Weight on Ground Reaction Force and Joint Angles of the Knee

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   The Effect of Added Weight on Ground Reaction Force and Joint Angles of the Knee during Drop Jump Landing Introduction For a good successful drop landing, athletes will require, good muscle strength, stability and further capabilities of the major joints, these are all vital factors which will impact the defense against injury to … Read More»

Effect of Caffeine and Sleep Deprivation

Introduction The routine is the same for a lot of people. One of the first things in the morning, aside from showering, getting dressed, and eating breakfast, a cup of coffee is a regular part of our morning ritual. It helps us get moving in the morning and keeps us alert and ready for whatever … Read More»

Effect of Caffeine on Adolescent Psychological and Physiological Health

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Caffeine is the world’s most popular drug, with 90% of adult North Americans consuming it daily[1]. Furthermore, adolescents are the fastest growing population of caffeine consumers, with a study by Brazier indicating 83.2% of teenagers consume caffeinated beverages regularly[2]. Caffeine is classed as a psychoactive stimulant, however unlike the majority of … Read More»

Effect of Holding Breath on Blood Flow

CARDIOVASCULAR PRACTICAL WRITE-UP   ABSTRACT Humans exhibit a complex physiological response to various stimuli in order to survive. The Valsalva manoeuvre increases the intrathoracic pressure and reduces venous return, cardiac output and arterial pressure. Facial immersion results in bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, apnoea and hypoxia. Breath holding has a similar effect to facial immersion. An ECG … Read More»

Effect of Hydration on Performance

Hydration and Performance   Humans are endothermic homeotherms, which means that our body temperature is maintained within a narrow range (~37°C) despite thermal fluctuations in the internal or external environment (Labocha & Hayes, 2008). This function is crucial for survival as the essential processes for sustaining life are temperature dependant (Nilsson, Kogure & Busto, 1975; … Read More»

Effects and Functions of an Electrocardiogram Under the Influence of Exercise

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract This lab examines the specific sections of a typical sinus rhythm through the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG). An ECG is a measuring tool that monitors and examines the heart’s electrical activity. To examine the significance of exercise on the heart, the ECG is utilized. Heart rate of 27 subjects … Read More»

Effects of Amphetamines on Dopamine Neurotransmitter Systems

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   The link between a drug’s effect on an individual’s dopamine neurotransmitter system and potential for it to lead to a cycle of addiction and relapse has been well documented by many researchers. This paper will first discuss the function of the dopamine neurotransmitter system and how it is affected by Amphetamine, … Read More»

The effect of drugs on heart rate: Research experiment

The water flea Daphnia pulex (see figure 1) is a small (1.1-3.5mm long ) crustacean commonly found in ponds in the United Kingdom. The full taxonomy of Daphnia pulux is as follows: Kingdom – Branchiopoda Phylum – Diplostraca Class – Cladocera Order – Anomopoda Family – Daphniidae Genus – Daphnia Subgenus – pulex Figure 1. Daphnia pulex, showing the clear … Read More»

Effects of Caffeine on Reaction Time

Proposal: The SACE approved investigation was conducted to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time. It was hypothesized that those participants in the fully caffeinated group would have better reaction times than those in the decaffeinated group. This hypothesis was chosen based on previous knowledge on the effects of caffeine – it is a … Read More»

Effects of Caffeine on Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Clinical Trial — CONSORT evaluation Title and Abstract CONSORT item 1a (Schulz, Altman, &Mohar, 2010) identifies that, caffeine ingestion improves repeated freestyle sprints in elite male swimmers were non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (Goods, Landers and Fulton, 2017). The Abstract complies with CONSORT item 1b. The structured summary of trial design is … Read More»

Effects of Dry Needling for Injured Athletes

Dry Needling To many athletes and fitness enthusiasts, there is nothing worse than chronic pain or injury. It can impact their daily routines and quality of life as well as decrease performance. The negative impact to quality of life can then lead to depression, loss of motivation, and a decrease in self-confidence. Dry needling is … Read More»

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